Arabic Language Zone

Supporting Arabic in cooperation with ….

Marhaba and welcome to the Arabic Zone !

We all want to see the beautiful Arabic language thrive in the UK and the best way to do this is through sharing and learning from each other. That’s why the Arabic Zone is being set up and we hope you’ll take a look and see the fantastic range of resources that have already been posted. These are resources by teachers for teachers and we hope they will grow and grow. So please consider making a contribution however small and submit to with ‘Arabic Zone’ in the title.

 Access to the ALL Arabic Zone is free to all at present and will remain free for members of ALL, the voice for all language teachers, including those working in community based schools. More than ever it is important for teachers of Languages  to work together. So, if you're not a member already, please consider joining. This will allow you access to many other resources, professional development events and the national Language World conference. You will also receive the association's magazine 'Languages Today'.

Amazing news for Arabic

Here we celebrate all things Arabic - language learners and teachers, cultural events,

support for teachers, and challenges and opportunities for learners. Let us know your Amazing News!


Congratulations and thanks

Congratulations, teachers of Arabic!

ALL is thrilled to be launching the Arabic Zone. Arabic language teachers, who volunteered to share their expertise, have been building this Zone to promote Arabic teaching and learning and to support the development of the Arabic teacher community. We much hope you’ll enjoy discovering the resources available here and invite you to get in touch to share your own work and/or to recommend any resources.

Heartfelt thanks to the volunteers who have worked together to launch this Arabic Zone, including Sahar Y.I. Alshobaki, Seloua Aizeboudjene, Jim Anderson, Noreia Benhalima, Luma Hameed and Fatima Khaled.

Please visit other areas of the ALL website. All languages teachers have strategies in common and we here at ALL want to celebrate and support all languages teachers and their work.

The Arabic Zone depends on enthusiasts to share; over to you! Join the team!

Steven Fawkes and Judith Rifeser for ALL

Arabic and me

‘Arabic and me’ is a competition in New South Wales, Australia, involving digital skills (open in NSW only) which might inspire you to create a competition in the UK?      


Offers award-winning, high-quality language learning programs delivered by refugees, for all levels of Arabic, Armenian, French, Kurdish, Persian and Spanish, as well as professional translation services to individuals and organizations worldwide.

Have you read the latest copy of Languages Today?


The Arabic Zone is grateful to teachers who share their resources and recommendations here.

The copyright on these remains with their creator. 

Resources are proofread, but if typos still exist, please let us know via email.

Arabic Digital Book

Congratulations to Luma Hameed and her colleagues on the launch in December 2021 of this new resource, the first stage of ‘Yalla Arabi’, Arabic as a Foreign Language.

Please click here for more information.

Australian ‘Open Language’ initiative. Resource bank for various languages including Arabic

The Sydney Institute for Community Languages Education (SICLE) has established this portal to bring together available resources to support teaching both in out-of-hours community languages schools and primary and secondary schools.


Themes :

Culture and celebrations (including events, music, dance, traditional stories, mythology, folktales, drama)

Food and shopping (including customs, cooking, shopping, basic maths)

Myself and my family (including greetings, introductions, feelings, identity, descriptions, pets, daily routines, body/health)

My community, my school (including friends, sport, technology)

QFI Resource portal

A treasury of classroom-ready materials for teaching the Arabic language and about the Arab world.

Resources are tagged by subject matter, instructional level(s), as well as resource and material types so you can easily find what you're looking for.

There are also Featured Resources and Curated Collections, e.g. the Art of Ancient Egypt

Arabic writing mat

Writing mats are useful to support students in their writing tasks whey they run out if ideas or are not sure how to structure their work . 

This one is shared by Luma Hameed - Arabic writing mat

Cultural capital

Images and presentations around the issue of including culture in lessons.

QFI Resource portal curated

In this feature we ask colleagues to select a few of their favourite resources from the wealth available.


QFI’s resource portal contains a rich variety of Arabic teaching and learning resources which will enable you and your students to explore the language and cultures of the Arabic speaking world. Here are two of my favourites.


Tony Calderbank


The Annenberg videos

Annenberg Learner & QFI: Arabic Best Practices | Qatar Foundation International

The Annenberg video collection contains seven videos for teachers of Arabic which highlight best practices for bring the language to life in the classroom. These lessons emphasize the teaching of communication and illustrate how dialect can be incorporated into the Arabic language lesson alongside Modern Standard Arabic. The videos include classes with heritage leaners, who have some knowledge of Arabic language and culture, as well as non-heritage pupils, who are learning the language from scratch. There are lots of good ideas here to get your students are actively engaged and using the language with enthusiasm.



The Tilemaker

QFI’s Tilemaker is a mosaic tile generator app that allows students to explore geometric design and to create their own tiles using symmetry, tessellation and calligraphy. It is easy to use, and the artwork produced can be printed off for classroom displays and can be shared online in QFI’s gallery. Tilemaker is perfect for unlocking your students’ creativity, the possibilities and permutations are endless, and the students are introduced to the basic principles of Islamic design, which opens up a whole world of artistic and cultural heritage



Ms Fatima Khaled (Headteacher of Peace School, London) recommends the following Teacher Professional Development resources. Teachers can watch a step-by-step video guide on how to deliver a creative session in Arabic, related to art.


Resources for teachers include:

  • -    Video in 11 sections with guidance notes 

      Arabic workshop PPT

  • Planning Toolkit (Arabic and English versions)
  • Poetry in the Arabic language classroom
  • Report on unit from the resource in practice at the Peace School   


Further materials are available at:

Resources shared at the ALL Arabic Zone launch event June 2021

Teachers of Arabic from around the world joined ALL Members to launch the ALL Arabic Zone on Zoom ! They heard about the great work of volunteers in sharing content and the invitation to others to contribute their own ideas and then enjoyed an enthusiastic and joyful Show & Tell event; you can view a recording from Recent Events on this page. Some of the contributions are also listed here. 

'Resources for the Arabic classroom: Film, Video and Audiovisual Media'

This contribution offers a brief overview of the Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA) and introduces some of the available resources (for example, the Arabic study guides) and the Arabic Group, led by Dr Salwa Mohamed. It presents the recent INSET, delivered by the Manchester Metropolitan research group Film, Languages and Media in Education (FLAME): Using Short Film Creatively in the Arabic Language Classroom, and resources, materials and links to videos. This workshop was part of the research project Transmedia in Education: New Approaches to Transmedia and Language Pedagogy, linked to the Cross-Language Dynamics (AHRC).

The final part of this presentation/materials invites Arabic Language Teachers to join FILTA ( [free membership] and share resources related to this area.

Finally, the research group FLAME  welcomes possible research collaborations from Arabic Language Teachers working on this interdisciplinary field.

Resources for the Arabic classroom

Noughts and Crosses with Powerpoint

Mevludin Shah presented in the Arabic Zone launch event his strategies for using triggers and images in Powerpoint to construct interactive language games. He shares this now on YouTube. 

Mevludin has other YouTube clips for teachers of Arabic that you will enjoy, and you can find his channel here :

and video clips, for example  on

Arabic vowels

Arabic letters

Arabic handwriting  

Finger Puppets

Doaa Mohamed contributes this note about how she use Finger Puppets in Arabic teaching, as she demonstrated in the launch event.

I have seen so many of my students shy away from speaking during lessons. They somehow feel more confident and start speaking when they use one of my finger puppets. The lion  puppet “Assad” is especially a big hit with students of all abilities and interests.                                              

They use them to have fun practicing conversational skills, to make up stories, create new sentences and so much more.

Dooa says : ‘Thank you for a heart-warming Zoom meeting “ALL Arabic Zone Launch”. I learned a lot from all the creative teachers who participated, and hope to stay in connect with this wonderful group of people.’


Planning and Curriculum

First year of Arabic – scheme of work

British Council / QFI Arabic beginners scheme of work for year 7 (or for the first year of learning Arabic language) is available here:

This scheme of work has been prepared to assist teachers of Arabic who are introducing the language to students who have no prior knowledge. It follows a similar approach to the one used for other modern foreign languages and seeks to establish a sound footing for learners who may go on to take the Arabic GCSE. The plan contains a termly curriculum map which outlines the main learning objectives and a detailed scheme of work that sets out the weekly language and culture content for the first year of Arabic learning. There is also an introduction which explains the thinking behind the design and format of the plan.


British Council is hoping to create some related lesson plans in the future.  



The AATT of curriculum planning - Dr Jennifer Eddy

In her article Dr Jennifer Eddy introduces the principles behind  designing the task-based learning modules available, with tools for language teachers, on the Design Space website.

Dr Eddy is an ALL member and very keen to work with British language teacher in projects. Her website (details in the article) contain project plans in a wide range of languages.



Pull through from Guest Blogs on :



A webinar recording can also be accessed on this page:

Recent Events

Arabic Storytelling Workshop – British Council and Qatar Foundation International (QFI)

November 16, 2020

To celebrate International Education Week, British Council and Qatar Foundation International’s (QFI) Arabic Language and Culture programme offered two opportunities for primary and lower secondary pupils;

  • An online, traditional, Arabic story-telling workshop for a maximum of 30 participants.
  • An opportunity to connect a class with a native Arabic speaker through the NaTakallam project where the speaker was be able to discuss Arabic language and culture with the class, as well as share their own experiences as a refugee.
Arabic Language Zone Show and Tell Webinar

Arabic Language Zone Show and Tell Webinar

Watch the webinar here.

Arabic Zone Webinar June 2022

This webinar welcomed Fatima Khaled to speak about her Project Based Learning work, based on language and Art.

Luma Hameed to speak about her e-publication for Secondary Arabic learners.

Please click here for Fatima's Presentation.

Please click here for the session recording.
Passcode: 9i06A=eh

ALL workshop for teachers: Using short films and videos creatively in the Arabic language classroom

Click here to view the ALL London Workshop

The padlet used at this event contains many useful resources, including a Film glossary and is available here

Shubbak: Walk With Us

For the 2021 webinar, Luma Hameed created some classroom activities for school teachers to follow up and attached them to this flyer.

Arabic Speaking competition

The British Council introduced this year an exciting opportunity for students at schools in the UK to demonstrate their Arabic language speaking skills. This event is sponsored by Qatar Foundation International (QFI).  The pilot British Council Arabic Speaking competition celebrated the achievements of students on 21st. May 2021.

You can read more here

Shubbak: Intercultural Journeys

Intercultural Journeys

Intercultural Journeys was an interactive webinar for students and young people aged 12 years plus taking place on 25 November 2021. Featuring the rapper Felukah, theatre director Omar Elerian and playwright Mudar Alhaggi, it explored self-expression, multi-culturalism and authenticity through the creative use of  the Arabic and English languages.

The webinar includes clips of the artists’ work, live activities for students and a Q&A with the artists. 

More information here:

Future Events

Goldsmiths Arabic Certificate course 2022

Online course providing a foundation in up-to-date methods for teaching Arabic. (Goldsmiths, University of London) - October 2022-February 2023

This course, which draws on Goldsmiths’ substantial experience as a provider of professional development for teachers of Arabic, has been developed through a partnership with the British Council and Qatar Foundation International. It uses a blended learning approach, involving 150 hours of learning time, and mentor support, as participants put approaches introduced into practice in their own schools.

The Certificate has a value of 15 credits at Level 3 of the Higher Education Framework.

The course fee is £800. However, a bursary of £600 is available for the first 20 successful applicants, provided by Qatar Foundation International.

Course tutors: Luma Hameed and Sawsan Saffaff

For further information and instructions on how to apply go to:

Creativity in Creating Arabic Language Games’ competition 2022

'Creativity in Creating Arabic Langauge Games' Competition 2022 - Call for Submissions

Arabic Teachers' Council in London and Southern England, supported by Qatar Foundation International and Goldsmiths, University of London, is pleased to invite all teachers of Arabic in the region to take part in the ‘Creativity in Creating Arabic Language Games’ competition 2022.

Congratulations to last year’s winners in the ‘Creativity in Arabic Language Teaching’ competition.

First award went to Mr Mevludin Shah from Al-Nour Primary school and the second award went to Mrs Assia Benhamed from Gatton primary school.

Please click here for further information.


British Council QFI Arabic Conference - 20 June 2022

Are you currently teaching Arabic or thinking of introducing Arabic to your school?

Come to the British Council/QFI Arabic conference on June 20th for excellent talks, professional development and a chance to network with other teachers of Arabic.

Date: 20 June 2022
Time: 09.30-20.00
Venue: Church House, Westminster

Use this link to see the programme and register your attendance.

World Arabic Language Day

World Arabic Language Day is 18th. December

Here is a poster   

and some activities to help you celebrate with pupils.

Arabic Zone webinar: June 2022

You are warmly invited to the Arabic Zone’s latest webinar for Arabic teachers, hosted by ALL on Zoom.

Thursday 9th June 2022, from 19:00 to 20:00.

For more details please click here.

Please click here to book your place.

British Association of Teachers of Arabic (BATA) - 2nd Annual International Conference - 30th June - 1st July 2022

There are three categories in the registration form:
1) BATA members (BME)
2) Non-members (NMEM)
3) Students (STUD)
Please only select the category relevant to you.

In-person/Onsite Attendance:
If you intend to attend the conference in person/onsite, please register HERE .

Online Attendance:
If you intend to attend the conference online, please register HERE .

For the full conference programme please click HERE.

Please click HERE for some key facts about the conference.

For further information on the registration and the categories, please click Conference Registration. If you have any queries, please do not hesitate to drop us a line at

Guest Blogs

Multilingual Digital Storytelling

Ms Fatima Khaled (Headteacher of Peace School, London) shares how can we use digital storytelling in the classroom as an approach to help students personalise their learning and make the learning of Arabic language, creative, authentic, cultural and fun.


For Ms N. Benhalima, learning culture is vital in MFL lessons because it puts the language into context. Here, she shows how students had to design a leaflet for an Arab country to include different cultural aspects such as food, clothes and dialect and present them to the class.

shared by Ms N. Benhalima (Westminster Academy, Teacher (Arabic, French).

 Cultural Awareness

Visual art and Arabic language learning

Jim Anderson, Fatima Khaled and Luma Hameed write about the combination of art, artefacts, emotion and language.

Hameed, Anderson, Khaled and Abdelhadi AZ - Visual art and Arabic language teaching

Arabic as One: Teaching Adult Learners of Arabic

Here Sahar Y.I. Alshobaki (PhD student, University of Roehampton) shares her research in progress on her approach to teaching Arabic by starting the engagement with a new student by asking them to create their personalised Learner’s Vision.

 Alshobaki Arabic as one

QFI : Lessons learned

Please click here to be view the QFI Lessons Learned document.

Support and opportunities for teachers

Arabic Certificate Course

Arabic Teachers' Council in London and Southern England - 2022 Free CPD Sessions!

Goldsmiths, University of London is very pleased to announce the return of the ‘Arabic Certificate Course’.
This course, which draws on Goldsmiths’ substantial experience as a provider of professional development for teachers of Arabic, has been developed through a partnership with the British Council and Qatar Foundation UK. The course promotes a reflective, process-based and collaborative approach to professional development integrating theory and practice. It is based on a combination of lecture workshops, self-study activities and classroom teaching.

For further details on this course and how to apply, please click here.

Contact :

British Council programme

The British Council, working with Qatar Foundation International, supports teachers of Arabic in schools in a variety of ways. See also Events.


A well-established and rich bank of resources for Arabic, with a facility to Join the Facebook group from the website.

Exploiting songs in the classroom

Thoughts from Steven Fawkes on the value, importance and practical usefulness of songs in the hands of the Language teacher.

Steven Fawkes Exploiting Songs in the classroom

Professional development for teachers of Arabic in schools

Jim Anderson’s information sheet on QTS/CPD opportunities

Arabic network

There is a forum for teachers of Arabic on jiscmail :

A-level common mistakes

Luma Hameed kindly shares a collection of common mistakes made by students - A level common mistakes

UK Arabic Teacher Councils (ATCs)

The recently established UK councils are very active in offering CPD for teachers of Arabic.

  • North West Teachers Council, hosted by Bolton Muslim Girls School

ATC leader: Fatima Mohamed

  • West Yorkshire Teachers Council, hosted by Leeds University

ATC Leader: Dr Rasha Soliman

Project support officer: Dr Shifa Askari

  • London and Southern England

ATC Leader: Luma Hameed

The Arabic Teachers' Centre in London and Southern England offers a programme of CPD opportunities, and hosts the ‘Creativity in Arabic Language Teaching Competition 2021’


Supported by QFI, there are councils in the US, Germany and the UK.

Using video in the Arabic Classroom

ALL supports teachers of all languages in learning from each other. Here Steven Fawkes shares introductory thoughts on how language teachers use video resources to support learning. If you have suggestions of video resources for use in lessons, or other strategies please share them with who will add them here.

Exploiting video resources in the Arabic classroom

GCSE Arabic conversation

Reflections on the GCSE Arabic Speaking Test and sample useful questions by theme, thanks to Luma Hameed

Example GCSE questions Arabic Conversation

Challenges and opportunities for learners

British Council Arabic Speaking competition 2022

British Council Arabic Speaking Competition 2022

Registration is now open to pupils based in the United Kingdom aged 10-18, with a deadline of 31 January 2022.

Individual learners of Arabic will perform an oral presentation to a judging panel of fluent Arabic speakers, communicating at a language level appropriate to their learning. The performance will be followed by questions from the judges, depending on the student’s level.

Performances may last up to two minutes, and will take place online between 23 February and 23 March 2022.

Students should enter the competition through their school teacher. Entrants must speak in Modern Standard Arabic not dialect. Beginner level students are encouraged to apply.

The winners will be announced at a National Celebration Event in either May or June 2022. Please read the Arabic Speaking Competition Guide 2022 for all the details and tips to help with your application.

Full details can be found here.

Creativity in teaching Arabic

The Arabic Teachers’ Council (ATC) in London and Southern England is pleased to announce the ‘Creativity in Arabic Language Teaching’ competition 2021, funded by Qatar Foundation International (QFI).

This competition aims to encourage teachers to showcase their creative teaching styles and resources, and their impact on learning Arabic as a foreign language. The first three winners will be featured on social media, and in the ALL Arabic Zone, and will receive a prize.

Arabic language teachers are invited to submit their entry by 11/06/2021. Please e-mail Goldsmiths, University of London, teachers’ centre, for the competition pack

National Spelling Bee for Arabic?

Routes into Languages East and the ALL Arabic Zone a're exploring the possibility of extending the repertoire of languages in the Routes into Languages National Foreign Language Spelling Bee to Arabic and would like to gauge the interest from teachers in a National Arabic Spelling Bee competition. We would therefore like to hear from anyone who'd be interested in running such a competition in their school/supplementary school.

Please contact Sarah Schechter

To find out a bit more about the competition go to

Hacks for Arabic


Use of digital tools

Ms N. Benhalima shares: “Following a challenging yet insightful and rewarding experience of teaching online throughout the pandemic, I have integrated different digital and platforms tools into MFL lessons to make them engaging and meaningful. These digital platforms were very useful for retrieval practice and also for different online assessments.”

Noreia Benhalima The use of digital tools during lockdown 2.0 shared by Ms N. Benhalima (Westminster Academy, Teacher (Arabic, French).


In this post, Ms N. Benhalima shares her Quizlet work. She notes : “I usually use Quizlet to promote students' independent learning, I also ask students to practice vocabulary/ chunk of sentences that they have learned in previous lessons.

Finally, I use it during the lesson as a plenary "Quizlet Live” which is a competitive game  to create  fun and engaging learning.”

 Noreia Benhalima Quizlet

shared by Ms N. Benhalima (Westminster Academy, Teacher (Arabic, French).


Research summaries from OASIS

The Open Accessible Summaries In Language Studies (OASIS) initiative aims to make research findings on language learning and teaching available and accessible to a wide audience.

OASIS summaries are one-page descriptions of research articles on language learning, language teaching, and multilingualism that have been published in peer-reviewed journals listed on the Social Science Citation Index or the Arts and Humanities Citation Index. The summaries provide information about the study’s goals, how it was conducted, and what was found, and are written in non-technical language. Where relevant, they also highlight findings that may be of particular interest to language educators, although the initiative is not solely aimed at research with immediate practical implications. The summaries are generally approved, and often (co-)written, by the author(s) of the original journal article.

Reading list 1: Recommended articles in the Language Learning Journal

Here, Dr Judith Rifeser (Deputy HMO ALL/ Goldsmiths, University of London) provides a short reading list for Arabic language teachers.

The Language Learning Journal is the official journal of the Association for Language Learning. It is an open access journal by Taylor Francis that publishes international research on the teaching and learning of languages, pedagogy and multilingualism and multiculturalism. ALL members have access to the journal as a member benefit. ALL Language Learning Journal page:

You and/or your school can join to become an ALL member here which provides access to the full range of benefits that ALL has to offer. We also offer corporate membership:

Within the ALL Language Learning Journal links, the DOI (Direct Object Identifier) will lead directly to the article, if you are an ALL Member.


Anderson, J.  (2011) Reshaping pedagogies for a plurilingual agenda. In: Language Learning Journal. 39:2 pp. 135-147.

Anderson, J. (2008) Towards integrated second language teaching pedagogy for foreign and community/heritage languages in multilingual Britain. In: Language Learning Journal. 36:1 pp. 79-89.

McPake, J., Tinsley, T. and James, C. 2007. Making provision for community languages: Issues for teacher education in the UK. The Language Learning Journal, 35(1) pp. 99–112.

Ros i Solé, C. (2013) Cosmopolitan speakers and their cultural cartographies. In: The Language Learning Journal, 41:3 pp. 326-339, DOI: 10.1080/09571736.2013.836349

McPake, J., Tinsley, T. & James, J. (2007) Making provision for community languages: issues for teacher education in the UK. In: The Language Learning Journal, 35:1, pp. 99-112, DOI: 10.1080/09571730701317705

Reading list 2: Further recommended articles and books

Here, Dr Judith Rifeser (Deputy HMO ALL/ Goldsmiths, University of London) provides a short reading list for Arabic language teachers.


Abdelhadi, R., Hameed, L., Khaled, F. and Anderson, J. (2018) Language in Art and the Work of Ali Omar Ermes. London: Goldsmiths, University of London.

 Abdelhadi, R., Hameed, L., Khaled, F. and Anderson, J. (2019) Creative interactions with art works: An engaging approach to Arabic language-and-culture learning. In: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching pp. 273-289. doi: 10.1080/17501229.2019.1579219

Al-Batal, M. (2008) The Teaching of Arabic as a Foreign Language: Issues and Directions. The American Association of Teachers of Arabic.

Al-Busaidi, F. (2015) Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges. In: Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies. 9:4 pp. pp. 701-717.

Alosh, M. (2000) Ahlan wa Sahlan: Functional Modern Standard Arabic for Beginners. Instructors’ Handbook. Interactive Teaching of Arabic. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Anderson, J. & Macleroy, V. (2017) Connecting worlds: interculturality, identity and multilingual digital stories in the making. In: Language and Intercultural Communication. 17:4 pp. 494-517. DOI: 10.1080/14708477.2017.1375592

Anderson, J. & Obied/Macleroy, V. (2011) Languages, literacies and learning: from monocultural to intercultural perspectives. In: NALDIC Quarterly, 8:3, pp. 16-26.

Anderson, J. & Macleroy, V. (2015) Rethinking multilingualism: trajectories in policy, pedagogy and research in the UK. In A. Yiakoumetti (ed.) Multilingualism and Language in Education: Current Sociolinguistic and Pedagogical Perspectives from Commonwealth Countries. 243-265). Cambridge: CUP.

Bradbury, V. and Jones, A. E. (2006) The implications of bilingual education in Wales for Multilingual schools in England. NALDIC (National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum) Quarterly, 3(4) pp. 31–35.

Brown, K. and Brown, M. 2003. Reflections on Citizenship in a Multilingual World, London: CILT.

Byram, M. (1988) Rethinking foreign language teaching in the UK: What curriculum for a multi-ethnic society?. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 20(3) pp. 247–255.

Byram, M. (1997) Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Creese, A., Bhatt, A., Bhojani, N. and Martin, P. W. (2006) Multicultural, heritage and learner identities in complementary schools. Language and Education, 20(1) pp. 23–43.

Gabsi, Z., Patel, F. and Hamad, A. (2015) Trials and tribulations of Sla framework in designing Arabic courses for speakers of other languages, Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 13-21. Available at:

Gass, S. (2006) Models of Second Language Acquisition. In: Wahba, K.M., Taha, Z.A. and England, L. (2006) (eds) Handbook for Arabic Language teaching professionals in the 21st Century. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 21-33. Available at:

Macleroy Obied, V. and Grammatikopoulou, V. (2013). Meeting the Challenge of the Multicultural Classroom through Continuing Professional Development. In: NALDIC Quarterly. 13:3, pp. 7-9.

Palmer, J., (2008) Arabic diglossia: Student perceptions of the spoken Arabic after living in the Arabic speaking world. Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching. 15: 81-95. Available at:

Saffaf, S. and Abdel-Hay, N.  (2007) Curriculum Guide for Arabic. London: CILT, The National Centre for Languages.

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