Supporting Arabic in cooperation with ….
Marhaba and welcome to the Arabic Zone !
We all want to see the beautiful Arabic language thrive in the UK and the best way to do this is through sharing and learning from each other. That’s why the Arabic Zone is being set up and we hope you’ll take a look and see the fantastic range of resources that have already been posted. These are resources by teachers for teachers and we hope they will grow and grow. So please consider making a contribution however small and submit to info@ALL-Languages.org.uk with ‘Arabic Zone’ in the title.
Access to the ALL Arabic Zone is free to all at present and will remain free for members of ALL, the voice for all language teachers, including those working in community based schools. More than ever it is important for teachers of Languages to work together. So, if you're not a member already, please consider joining. This will allow you access to many other resources, professional development events and the national Language World conference. You will also receive the association's magazine 'Languages Today'.
Amazing news for Arabic
Here we celebrate all things Arabic - language learners and teachers, cultural events,
support for teachers, and challenges and opportunities for learners. Let us know your Amazing News!
Congratulations and thanks
Congratulations, teachers of Arabic!
ALL is thrilled to be launching the Arabic Zone. Arabic language teachers, who volunteered to share their expertise, have been building this Zone to promote Arabic teaching and learning and to support the development of the Arabic teacher community. We much hope you’ll enjoy discovering the resources available here and invite you to get in touch to share your own work and/or to recommend any resources.
Heartfelt thanks to the volunteers who have worked together to launch this Arabic Zone, including Sahar Y.I. Alshobaki, Seloua Aizeboudjene, Jim Anderson, Noreia Benhalima, Luma Hameed and Fatima Khaled.
Please visit other areas of the ALL website. All languages teachers have strategies in common and we here at ALL want to celebrate and support all languages teachers and their work.
The Arabic Zone depends on enthusiasts to share; over to you! Join the team!
Steven Fawkes and Judith Rifeser for ALL
Arabic and me
‘Arabic and me’ is a competition in New South Wales, Australia, involving digital skills (open in NSW only) which might inspire you to create a competition in the UK?
Offers award-winning, high-quality language learning programs delivered by refugees, for all levels of Arabic, Armenian, French, Kurdish, Persian and Spanish, as well as professional translation services to individuals and organizations worldwide.
Have you read the latest copy of Languages Today?
The Arabic Zone is grateful to teachers who share their resources and recommendations here.
The copyright on these remains with their creator.
Resources are proofread, but if typos still exist, please let us know via email.
Arabic Digital Book
Congratulations to Luma Hameed and her colleagues on the launch in December 2021 of this new resource, the first stage of ‘Yalla Arabi’, Arabic as a Foreign Language.
Please click here for more information.
Australian ‘Open Language’ initiative. Resource bank for various languages including Arabic
The Sydney Institute for Community Languages Education (SICLE) has established this portal to bring together available resources to support teaching both in out-of-hours community languages schools and primary and secondary schools.
Culture and celebrations (including events, music, dance, traditional stories, mythology, folktales, drama)
Food and shopping (including customs, cooking, shopping, basic maths)
Myself and my family (including greetings, introductions, feelings, identity, descriptions, pets, daily routines, body/health)
My community, my school (including friends, sport, technology)
QFI Resource portal
A treasury of classroom-ready materials for teaching the Arabic language and about the Arab world.
Resources are tagged by subject matter, instructional level(s), as well as resource and material types so you can easily find what you're looking for.
There are also Featured Resources and Curated Collections, e.g. the Art of Ancient Egypt
Arabic writing mat
Writing mats are useful to support students in their writing tasks whey they run out if ideas or are not sure how to structure their work .
This one is shared by Luma Hameed - Arabic writing mat
Images and presentations around the issue of including culture in lessons.
QFI Resource portal curated
In this feature we ask colleagues to select a few of their favourite resources from the wealth available.
QFI’s resource portal contains a rich variety of Arabic teaching and learning resources which will enable you and your students to explore the language and cultures of the Arabic speaking world. Here are two of my favourites.
The Annenberg videos
The Annenberg video collection contains seven videos for teachers of Arabic which highlight best practices for bring the language to life in the classroom. These lessons emphasize the teaching of communication and illustrate how dialect can be incorporated into the Arabic language lesson alongside Modern Standard Arabic. The videos include classes with heritage leaners, who have some knowledge of Arabic language and culture, as well as non-heritage pupils, who are learning the language from scratch. There are lots of good ideas here to get your students are actively engaged and using the language with enthusiasm.
QFI’s Tilemaker is a mosaic tile generator app that allows students to explore geometric design and to create their own tiles using symmetry, tessellation and calligraphy. It is easy to use, and the artwork produced can be printed off for classroom displays and can be shared online in QFI’s gallery. Tilemaker is perfect for unlocking your students’ creativity, the possibilities and permutations are endless, and the students are introduced to the basic principles of Islamic design, which opens up a whole world of artistic and cultural heritage
Ms Fatima Khaled (Headteacher of Peace School, London) recommends the following Teacher Professional Development resources. Teachers can watch a step-by-step video guide on how to deliver a creative session in Arabic, related to art.
Resources for teachers include:
- - Video in 11 sections with guidance notes
Arabic workshop PPT
- Planning Toolkit (Arabic and English versions)
- Poetry in the Arabic language classroom
- Report on unit from the resource in practice at the Peace School
Further materials are available at:
Resources shared at the ALL Arabic Zone launch event June 2021
Teachers of Arabic from around the world joined ALL Members to launch the ALL Arabic Zone on Zoom ! They heard about the great work of volunteers in sharing content and the invitation to others to contribute their own ideas and then enjoyed an enthusiastic and joyful Show & Tell event; you can view a recording from Recent Events on this page. Some of the contributions are also listed here.
'Resources for the Arabic classroom: Film, Video and Audiovisual Media'
This contribution offers a brief overview of the Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA) and introduces some of the available resources (for example, the Arabic study guides) and the Arabic Group, led by Dr Salwa Mohamed. It presents the recent INSET, delivered by the Manchester Metropolitan research group Film, Languages and Media in Education (FLAME): Using Short Film Creatively in the Arabic Language Classroom, and resources, materials and links to videos. This workshop was part of the research project Transmedia in Education: New Approaches to Transmedia and Language Pedagogy, linked to the Cross-Language Dynamics (AHRC).
The final part of this presentation/materials invites Arabic Language Teachers to join FILTA (https://www.filta.org.uk) [free membership] and share resources related to this area.
Finally, the research group FLAME
https://www.mmu.ac.uk/languages/flame/ welcomes possible research collaborations from Arabic Language Teachers working on this interdisciplinary field.
Noughts and Crosses with Powerpoint
Mevludin Shah presented in the Arabic Zone launch event his strategies for using triggers and images in Powerpoint to construct interactive language games. He shares this now on YouTube.
Mevludin has other YouTube clips for teachers of Arabic that you will enjoy, and you can find his channel here :
and video clips, for example on
Doaa Mohamed contributes this note about how she use Finger Puppets in Arabic teaching, as she demonstrated in the launch event.
I have seen so many of my students shy away from speaking during lessons. They somehow feel more confident and start speaking when they use one of my finger puppets. The lion puppet “Assad” is especially a big hit with students of all abilities and interests.
They use them to have fun practicing conversational skills, to make up stories, create new sentences and so much more.
Dooa says : ‘Thank you for a heart-warming Zoom meeting “ALL Arabic Zone Launch”. I learned a lot from all the creative teachers who participated, and hope to stay in connect with this wonderful group of people.’
Planning and Curriculum
First year of Arabic – scheme of work
British Council / QFI Arabic beginners scheme of work for year 7 (or for the first year of learning Arabic language) is available here: https://www.qfi.org/blog/arabic-study-plan-year-7-complete-beginner/
This scheme of work has been prepared to assist teachers of Arabic who are introducing the language to students who have no prior knowledge. It follows a similar approach to the one used for other modern foreign languages and seeks to establish a sound footing for learners who may go on to take the Arabic GCSE. The plan contains a termly curriculum map which outlines the main learning objectives and a detailed scheme of work that sets out the weekly language and culture content for the first year of Arabic learning. There is also an introduction which explains the thinking behind the design and format of the plan.
British Council is hoping to create some related lesson plans in the future.
The AATT of curriculum planning - Dr Jennifer Eddy
In her article Dr Jennifer Eddy introduces the principles behind designing the task-based learning modules available, with tools for language teachers, on the Design Space website.
Dr Eddy is an ALL member and very keen to work with British language teacher in projects. Her website (details in the article) contain project plans in a wide range of languages.
Pull through from Guest Blogs on : https://www.all-languages.org.uk/research-practice/practitioner-focus/
A webinar recording can also be accessed on this page: https://www.all-languages.org.uk/research-practice/practitioner-focus/
Arabic Storytelling Workshop – British Council and Qatar Foundation International (QFI)
November 16, 2020
To celebrate International Education Week, British Council and Qatar Foundation International’s (QFI) Arabic Language and Culture programme offered two opportunities for primary and lower secondary pupils;
- An online, traditional, Arabic story-telling workshop for a maximum of 30 participants.
- An opportunity to connect a class with a native Arabic speaker through the NaTakallam project where the speaker was be able to discuss Arabic language and culture with the class, as well as share their own experiences as a refugee.
Arabic Speaking competition
The British Council introduced this year an exciting opportunity for students at schools in the UK to demonstrate their Arabic language speaking skills. This event is sponsored by Qatar Foundation International (QFI). The pilot British Council Arabic Speaking competition celebrated the achievements of students on 21st. May 2021.
You can read more here
Creativity in Creating Arabic Language Games’ competition 2022
Arabic Teachers' Council in London and Southern England, supported by Qatar Foundation International and Goldsmiths, University of London, is pleased to invite all teachers of Arabic in the region to take part in the ‘Creativity in Creating Arabic Language Games’ competition 2022.
Congratulations to last year’s winners in the ‘Creativity in Arabic Language Teaching’ competition.
First award went to Mr Mevludin Shah from Al-Nour Primary school and the second award went to Mrs Assia Benhamed from Gatton primary school.
Please click here for further information.
Shubbak Festival 2021
Luma Hameed writes:
What a great opportunity for schools teaching Arabic to end up this academic year with a language and cultural boost through art, drama and poetry!
Shubbak Festival digital and live events for KS3, KS4 and 16–18 years old students with access to the festival’s public facing programme.
Please read the information flyers here and book by 8th/9th June 2021
What’s happening in Yemen and why?
Following on from British Council’s “Reporting on Syria – on the ground and to the world” webinar event https://vimeo.com/491578166 last year they are running another webinar for upper secondary pupils (Year 9 and above) from any school on
Tuesday 7 December 2021 from 13.30-14.30.
What’s happening in Yemen and why?
Hear from journalists who have covered the conflict and a Yemeni colleague on the ground about why the war started, the different parties that are involved, how it is reported in the UK and across the Middle East, and the effects of the conflict on daily life for young people in Yemen.
Our speakers are Nicolas Pelham from The Economist, Bethan McKernan from The Guardian, Bill Law editor of Arab Digest and Rowaida Khulaidi, British Council Director Yemen.
This event will be a Teams Live broadcast to schools. There will be time for questions from pupils to all the speakers.
NB this session is designed for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic language or the Arab World. To attend this event, please register using the online form
British Council free CPD webinars for teachers of Arabic in UK schools
These sessions are currently open for booking :
Effective Assessment with Samira Dani & Nezha Rida 16:00 GMT 25th May 2021
Reflective Practice with Isra’a Qaddourah & Hebatalla Elhelbawi 16:00 GMT 8th June 2021
Successful Lesson Planning with Oliver Hopwood 16:00 GMT 15th June 2021
To register for one or all of the sessions please complete the form here: Register here for our CPD webinars
If you have any questions or queries please email TeachingArabic@britishcouncil.org
Shubbak: Walk With Us
World Arabic Language Day
World Arabic Language Day is 18th. December
and some activities to help you celebrate with pupils.
Shubbak: Intercultural Journeys
Intercultural Journeys is a free, live and interactive webinar for students and young people aged 12 years plus taking place on 25 November from 1pm. Featuring the rapper Felukah, theatre director Omar Elerian and playwright Mudar Alhaggi, it will explore self-expression, multi-culturalism and authenticity through the creative use of the Arabic and English languages.
View the event flyer here.
The webinar includes clips of the artists’ work, live activities for students and a Q&A with the artists. Taking place on Zoom, the webinar lasts for 45 minutes and registration is free.
Shubbak’s series of themed educational webinars for children and young people aged 12 years plus highlight the creativity and innovation of Arab art and culture by offering an insight into the stimulating practices of contemporary Arab artists.
More information and booking here: https://www.shubbak.co.uk/intercultural-journeys/
Multilingual Digital Storytelling
Ms Fatima Khaled (Headteacher of Peace School, London) shares how can we use digital storytelling in the classroom as an approach to help students personalise their learning and make the learning of Arabic language, creative, authentic, cultural and fun.
For Ms N. Benhalima, learning culture is vital in MFL lessons because it puts the language into context. Here, she shows how students had to design a leaflet for an Arab country to include different cultural aspects such as food, clothes and dialect and present them to the class.
shared by Ms N. Benhalima (Westminster Academy, Teacher (Arabic, French).
Visual art and Arabic language learning
Jim Anderson, Fatima Khaled and Luma Hameed write about the combination of art, artefacts, emotion and language.
Arabic as One: Teaching Adult Learners of Arabic
Here Sahar Y.I. Alshobaki (PhD student, University of Roehampton) shares her research in progress on her approach to teaching Arabic by starting the engagement with a new student by asking them to create their personalised Learner’s Vision.
QFI : Lessons learned
Please click here to be view the QFI Lessons Learned document.
Support and opportunities for teachers
Arabic Certificate Course
Goldsmiths, University of London is very pleased to announce the return of the ‘Arabic Certificate Course’.
This course, which draws on Goldsmiths’ substantial experience as a provider of professional development for teachers of Arabic, has been developed through a partnership with the British Council and Qatar Foundation UK. The course promotes a reflective, process-based and collaborative approach to professional development integrating theory and practice. It is based on a combination of lecture workshops, self-study activities and classroom teaching.
For further details on this course and how to apply, please click here.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
British Council programme
The British Council, working with Qatar Foundation International, supports teachers of Arabic in schools in a variety of ways. See also Events.
A well-established and rich bank of resources for Arabic, with a facility to Join the Facebook group from the website.
Exploiting songs in the classroom
Thoughts from Steven Fawkes on the value, importance and practical usefulness of songs in the hands of the Language teacher.
Professional development for teachers of Arabic in schools
Jim Anderson’s information sheet on QTS/CPD opportunities
There is a forum for teachers of Arabic on jiscmail :
A-level common mistakes
Luma Hameed kindly shares a collection of common mistakes made by students - A level common mistakes
UK Arabic Teacher Councils (ATCs)
The recently established UK councils are very active in offering CPD for teachers of Arabic.
- North West Teachers Council, hosted by Bolton Muslim Girls School
ATC leader: Fatima Mohamed
- West Yorkshire Teachers Council, hosted by Leeds University
ATC Leader: Dr Rasha Soliman
Project support officer: Dr Shifa Askari
- London and Southern England
ATC Leader: Luma Hameed
The Arabic Teachers' Centre in London and Southern England offers a programme of CPD opportunities, and hosts the ‘Creativity in Arabic Language Teaching Competition 2021’
Supported by QFI, there are councils in the US, Germany and the UK.
Using video in the Arabic Classroom
ALL supports teachers of all languages in learning from each other. Here Steven Fawkes shares introductory thoughts on how language teachers use video resources to support learning. If you have suggestions of video resources for use in lessons, or other strategies please share them with email@example.com who will add them here.
GCSE Arabic conversation
Reflections on the GCSE Arabic Speaking Test and sample useful questions by theme, thanks to Luma Hameed
Challenges and opportunities for learners
British Council Arabic Speaking competition 2022
British Council Arabic Speaking Competition 2022
Registration is now open to pupils based in the United Kingdom aged 10-18, with a deadline of 31 January 2022.
Individual learners of Arabic will perform an oral presentation to a judging panel of fluent Arabic speakers, communicating at a language level appropriate to their learning. The performance will be followed by questions from the judges, depending on the student’s level.
Performances may last up to two minutes, and will take place online between 23 February and 23 March 2022.
Students should enter the competition through their school teacher. Entrants must speak in Modern Standard Arabic not dialect. Beginner level students are encouraged to apply.
The winners will be announced at a National Celebration Event in either May or June 2022. Please read the Arabic Speaking Competition Guide 2022 for all the details and tips to help with your application.
Creativity in teaching Arabic
The Arabic Teachers’ Council (ATC) in London and Southern England is pleased to announce the ‘Creativity in Arabic Language Teaching’ competition 2021, funded by Qatar Foundation International (QFI).
This competition aims to encourage teachers to showcase their creative teaching styles and resources, and their impact on learning Arabic as a foreign language. The first three winners will be featured on social media, and in the ALL Arabic Zone, and will receive a prize.
Arabic language teachers are invited to submit their entry by 11/06/2021. Please e-mail Goldsmiths, University of London, teachers’ centre, for the competition pack firstname.lastname@example.org.
National Spelling Bee for Arabic?
Routes into Languages East and the ALL Arabic Zone a're exploring the possibility of extending the repertoire of languages in the Routes into Languages National Foreign Language Spelling Bee to Arabic and would like to gauge the interest from teachers in a National Arabic Spelling Bee competition. We would therefore like to hear from anyone who'd be interested in running such a competition in their school/supplementary school.
Please contact Sarah Schechter email@example.com
To find out a bit more about the competition go to https://www.routesintolanguages.ac.uk/events/national-spelling-bee-competition
Hacks for Arabic
Use of digital tools
Ms N. Benhalima shares: “Following a challenging yet insightful and rewarding experience of teaching online throughout the pandemic, I have integrated different digital and platforms tools into MFL lessons to make them engaging and meaningful. These digital platforms were very useful for retrieval practice and also for different online assessments.”
Noreia Benhalima The use of digital tools during lockdown 2.0 shared by Ms N. Benhalima (Westminster Academy, Teacher (Arabic, French).
In this post, Ms N. Benhalima shares her Quizlet work. She notes : “I usually use Quizlet to promote students' independent learning, I also ask students to practice vocabulary/ chunk of sentences that they have learned in previous lessons.
Finally, I use it during the lesson as a plenary "Quizlet Live” which is a competitive game to create fun and engaging learning.”
shared by Ms N. Benhalima (Westminster Academy, Teacher (Arabic, French).
Research summaries from OASIS
The Open Accessible Summaries In Language Studies (OASIS) initiative aims to make research findings on language learning and teaching available and accessible to a wide audience.
OASIS summaries are one-page descriptions of research articles on language learning, language teaching, and multilingualism that have been published in peer-reviewed journals listed on the Social Science Citation Index or the Arts and Humanities Citation Index. The summaries provide information about the study’s goals, how it was conducted, and what was found, and are written in non-technical language. Where relevant, they also highlight findings that may be of particular interest to language educators, although the initiative is not solely aimed at research with immediate practical implications. The summaries are generally approved, and often (co-)written, by the author(s) of the original journal article.
Reading list 1: Recommended articles in the Language Learning Journal
Here, Dr Judith Rifeser (Deputy HMO ALL/ Goldsmiths, University of London) provides a short reading list for Arabic language teachers.
The Language Learning Journal is the official journal of the Association for Language Learning. It is an open access journal by Taylor Francis that publishes international research on the teaching and learning of languages, pedagogy and multilingualism and multiculturalism. ALL members have access to the journal as a member benefit. ALL Language Learning Journal page: https://www.all-languages.org.uk/research-practice/language-learning-journal-llj/
You and/or your school can join to become an ALL member here which provides access to the full range of benefits that ALL has to offer. We also offer corporate membership: https://www.all-languages.org.uk/join/become-a-member/
Within the ALL Language Learning Journal links, the DOI (Direct Object Identifier) will lead directly to the article, if you are an ALL Member.
Anderson, J. (2011) Reshaping pedagogies for a plurilingual agenda. In: Language Learning Journal. 39:2 pp. 135-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2011.573683
Anderson, J. (2008) Towards integrated second language teaching pedagogy for foreign and community/heritage languages in multilingual Britain. In: Language Learning Journal. 36:1 pp. 79-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571730801988553
McPake, J., Tinsley, T. and James, C. 2007. Making provision for community languages: Issues for teacher education in the UK. The Language Learning Journal, 35(1) pp. 99–112. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571730701317705
Ros i Solé, C. (2013) Cosmopolitan speakers and their cultural cartographies. In: The Language Learning Journal, 41:3 pp. 326-339, DOI: 10.1080/09571736.2013.836349
McPake, J., Tinsley, T. & James, J. (2007) Making provision for community languages: issues for teacher education in the UK. In: The Language Learning Journal, 35:1, pp. 99-112, DOI: 10.1080/09571730701317705
Reading list 2: Further recommended articles and books
Here, Dr Judith Rifeser (Deputy HMO ALL/ Goldsmiths, University of London) provides a short reading list for Arabic language teachers.
Abdelhadi, R., Hameed, L., Khaled, F. and Anderson, J. (2018) Language in Art and the Work of Ali Omar Ermes. London: Goldsmiths, University of London. https://mdstmr.wordpress.com/arabic/a-resource-pack/
Abdelhadi, R., Hameed, L., Khaled, F. and Anderson, J. (2019) Creative interactions with art works: An engaging approach to Arabic language-and-culture learning. In: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching pp. 273-289. doi: 10.1080/17501229.2019.1579219
Al-Batal, M. (2008) The Teaching of Arabic as a Foreign Language: Issues and Directions. The American Association of Teachers of Arabic.
Al-Busaidi, F. (2015) Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges. In: Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies. 9:4 pp. pp. 701-717. https://doi.org/10.24200/jeps.vol9iss4pp701-717
Alosh, M. (2000) Ahlan wa Sahlan: Functional Modern Standard Arabic for Beginners. Instructors’ Handbook. Interactive Teaching of Arabic. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Anderson, J. & Macleroy, V. (2017) Connecting worlds: interculturality, identity and multilingual digital stories in the making. In: Language and Intercultural Communication. 17:4 pp. 494-517. DOI: 10.1080/14708477.2017.1375592
Anderson, J. & Obied/Macleroy, V. (2011) Languages, literacies and learning: from monocultural to intercultural perspectives. In: NALDIC Quarterly, 8:3, pp. 16-26.
Anderson, J. & Macleroy, V. (2015) Rethinking multilingualism: trajectories in policy, pedagogy and research in the UK. In A. Yiakoumetti (ed.) Multilingualism and Language in Education: Current Sociolinguistic and Pedagogical Perspectives from Commonwealth Countries. 243-265). Cambridge: CUP.
Bradbury, V. and Jones, A. E. (2006) The implications of bilingual education in Wales for Multilingual schools in England. NALDIC (National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum) Quarterly, 3(4) pp. 31–35.
Brown, K. and Brown, M. 2003. Reflections on Citizenship in a Multilingual World, London: CILT.
Byram, M. (1988) Rethinking foreign language teaching in the UK: What curriculum for a multi-ethnic society?. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 20(3) pp. 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/0022027880200304
Byram, M. (1997) Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Creese, A., Bhatt, A., Bhojani, N. and Martin, P. W. (2006) Multicultural, heritage and learner identities in complementary schools. Language and Education, 20(1) pp. 23–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780608668708
Gabsi, Z., Patel, F. and Hamad, A. (2015) Trials and tribulations of Sla framework in designing Arabic courses for speakers of other languages, Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 13-21. Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1148710.pdf
Gass, S. (2006) Models of Second Language Acquisition. In: Wahba, K.M., Taha, Z.A. and England, L. (2006) (eds) Handbook for Arabic Language teaching professionals in the 21st Century. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 21-33. Available at: https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9780203824757.ch
Macleroy Obied, V. and Grammatikopoulou, V. (2013). Meeting the Challenge of the Multicultural Classroom through Continuing Professional Development. In: NALDIC Quarterly. 13:3, pp. 7-9.
Palmer, J., (2008) Arabic diglossia: Student perceptions of the spoken Arabic after living in the Arabic speaking world. Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching. 15: 81-95. Available at: https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/AZSLAT/article/view/21255/20835
Saffaf, S. and Abdel-Hay, N. (2007) Curriculum Guide for Arabic. London: CILT, The National Centre for Languages.